The kingdom of Macedonia was located in the area of modern-day northern Greece, and existed at least from the seventh century B.C.E, where it was founded by the Argead dynasty according to ancient historians. The symbol of the 16-rayed sun is closely connected to the Argeads, and is commonly regarded as the symbol of Macedonian royalty. Until Philip II of Macedonia assumed the throne, the kingdom was a typical small state caught in the power struggles of the major players, and was even under Persian rule for a short period. The invasion of the Phocians in Thessaly provided Philip with the opportunity to enter the third sacred war, and extend his influence to Greece. After defeating the Phocians at the battle of crocus field, Macedonia entered the Amphictyonic League, which was a major step in being recognized as equal by the other Greek states. The growth of Macedonian power in central Greece led to a conflict with Athens, which led to the battle of Chaironeia. Here Philip defeated the allied forces of Athens and Thebes and established a firm Macedonian dominance over the rest of Greece.
After the assassination of Philip II, his son Alexander III of Macedon, who was later called the great, assumed the throne. His campaign against Persia saw Macedonia at the height of their power, with their controlled territory reaching as far as Egypt and to the borders of India. However the empire of Alexander was short-lived, and shortly after his death it was divided into multiple kingdoms fighting for control of the complete conquered territory. At the end of the wars of the Diadochi, the Antigonid dynasty established themselves as the new rulers of Macedonia. At this point the kingdom had lost a huge part of its territory, and the remainder of the dominance over Greece was less than certain. The Macedonian kings spent the better part of the third century B.C.E. to regain their influence in Greece and to strengthen their position. In the late third century, a conflict with the Republic of rome escalated into the Roman-Macedonian wars, which ended in the year 168 B.C.E. with the dissolution if the kingdom of Macedonia and the establishment of four Macedonian republics under Roman control. Macedonia became an official Roman province in the year 146 B.C.E.